Agri-food systems must evolve towards a pattern of sustainability and resilience to ensure food security and nutrition for all. The status quo is not an option. Major transformations in agricultural systems and natural resource management will be required to ensure a safe and healthy future for all people and the entire planet. The growing protein demand of the growing global population can only be sustainably addressed by diversifying the protein offering. The workshop presents and discusses challenges and opportunities for protein production from animals, plant-based sources, and novel protein sources (insects, yeast, and microalgae) and how they contribute to sustainable food systems.